Types of Electric Vehicles



Various sorts of electric
vehicles changed and are grown persistently, giving clients and potential
clients decisions. Today the world is progressively acquainted with BEV, HEV, PHEV, and FCEV. How does an electric vehicle function? How an electric
vehicle function relies upon the sort. This article will momentarily discuss the types and working standards of electric vehicles or vehicles promoted
in the World and Indonesia today.


An electric vehicle is a vehicle
that is entirely or to some extent moved by electric engines, utilizing
energy put away in battery-powered batteries. The leading down-to-earth electric
cars were created during the 1880s. Electric vehicles were well known in
the late nineteenth century and mid-twentieth century. Development and progressed
advancement in gas-powered motors (ICE) and large-scale manufacturing of less
expensive fuel vehicles has prompted a decrease in the utilization of electric

The advancement of energy
stockpiling innovation, particularly battery innovation, causes electric
vehicles to become more famous again as of now. So how does an
electric car works truly? 

How Does An Electric Car Work? –

At the point when the pedal of the
vehicle is squeezed, then at that point:

Regulator takes and controls
electrical energy from batteries and inverters

With the regulator set, the
inverter then, at that point, sends a specific measure of electrical power to
the engine (as indicated by the profundity of tension on the pedal)

Electric engine changes over
electrical power into mechanical energy (turn)

The Revolution of the engine rotor
pivots the transmission, so the wheels turn, and afterward, the vehicle moves.

Note: The functioning guideline
above is for the battery electric vehicle (BEV) type.

Types of Electric Cars

There are 4 (four) types of
electric cars, with the following outline:

1.      Battery
Electric Vehicle (BEV)

2.     Hybrid
Electric Vehicle (HEV)

3.     Plug-in
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

4.     Fuel
Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

In brief, the system architecture
of the four types of electric cars above can be seen in the following figure:


Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

Controlled exclusively by an
electric battery, without any gas motor parts. Most BEVs are prepared to do
quick charging and L2 charging. Zero discharges.

Battery Electric Vehicles,
likewise called BEVs and regularly called EVs, are completely
electric vehicles with battery-powered batteries and no gas motor. All energy
to run the car comes from the battery pack, re-energized from the
lattice. BEVs are zero discharge vehicles, as they create no unsafe tailpipe
outflows or air contamination dangers brought about by customary gas-controlled
vehicles. Some well-known EV models are imagined here, and a full rundown of
accessible, quick-charging EV models is accessible in the diagram above. 

Architecture and Main Components


Components of BEV

Electric motor



Control Module

Drive train

Working Principles of BEV

Power is changed over from
the DC battery to AC for the electric engine

The gas pedal conveys a
message to the regulator, which changes the vehicle\’s speed by changing the
recurrence of the AC power from the inverter to the engine

The engine interfaces and
turns the wheels through a gear-tooth

At the point when the
brakes are squeezed, or the electric vehicle is decelerating, the engine turns
into an alternator and produces power, which is sent back to the battery

Examples of BEV

Volkswagen e-Golf, Tesla Model 3,
BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Chevy Spark, Nissan LEAF, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai
Ioniq, Karma Revera, Kia Soul, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla X, Toyota Rav4.



Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Similar to a Hybrid, but with a
larger battery and electric motor. Has a gas tank and a charging port. Can
charge by using L2 chargers.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,
or PHEVs, have an engine and electric motor to drive the car. Like regular
hybrids, they can recharge their battery through regenerative braking. They
differ from common hybrids by having a much larger battery and being able to
plug into the grid to recharge. While regular combinations can (at low speed) travel
1-2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on, PHEVs can go anywhere from 10-40
miles before their gas engines provide assistance. Once the all-electric range
is depleted, PHEVs act as regular hybrids and can travel several hundred miles
on a tank of gasoline. All PHEVs can charge at an EVgo L2 charger, but most
PHEVs are not capable of supporting fast charging. 

PHEV typically can run in at
least two modes:

All-electric Mode, in which the
motor and battery provide all the car\’s energy

Hybrid Mode, in which both
electricity and gasoline are employed.

Some PHEVs can travel more than
70 miles on electricity alone.

Architecture and Main Components


Components of PHEV

Electric motor




Fuel tank

Control module

Battery Charger (if
onboard model)

Working Principles of PHEV

PHEVs typically start-up in an all-electric mode and operate on electricity until their battery pack is
depleted. Some models shift to hybrid mode when they reach highway cruising
speed, generally above 60 or 70 miles per hour. Once the battery is empty, the
engine takes over, and the vehicle operates as a conventional, non-plug-in

In addition to plugging
into an outside electric power source, PHEV batteries can be charged by an
internal combustion engine or regenerative braking. The
electric motor acts as a generator during braking, using the energy to charge the battery. The
electric motor supplements the engine\’s power; as a result, smaller engines can
be used, increasing the car\’s fuel efficiency without compromising performance.


PHEV Examples:

Audi A3 E-Tron • Audi Q5 TFSIe
PHEV • Audi A7 TFSIe • Bentley Bentagya • BMW 330e • BMWi8 • BMWx5 xdrive40e •
Chevy Volt • Chrysler Pacifica • Fiat 500e • Ford C-Max Energi • Ferrari SF90
Stradale • Ford Escape PHEV • Ford Fusion Energi • Hyundai IONIQ PHEV • Hyundai
Sonata • Jeep Wrangler 4xe • Karma Revero GT • Kia Optima • Land Rover Range
Rover PHEV • Lincoln Aviator Grand Touring • Mercedes C530e • Mercedes S550e •
Mercedes GLE550e • Mini Cooper SE Countryman • Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV •
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid • Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid • Subaru Crosstrek
PHEV • Toyota Prius • Toyota RAV4 • Volvo XC90 TB • Volvo XC60 T8 PHEV



Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

Low-emission vehicles that use an
electric motor to assist gas-powered engines. All energy comes from gasoline.
Cannot charge with EVgo.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or
HEVs, have both a gas-powered engine and an electric motor to drive the car.
All energy for the battery is gained through regenerative braking, which
recoups otherwise lost power in braking to assist the gasoline engine during
acceleration. This braking
energy is typically lost as heat in the brake pads and rotors in a traditional internal combustion engine vehicle. Regular hybrids
cannot plug into the grid to recharge and cannot charge with EVgo.

The difference between HEV, BEV, and PHEV is that the batteries in HEV can only charge by the
ICE, the motion of the wheels, or a combination of both. There is no charging
port, so the battery cannot be recharged from outside of the system, for
example, from the electricity grid.

Architecture and Main Components
of HEV


Components of HEV


Electric motor

Battery pack with
controller & inverter

Fuel tank

Control module

Working Principles of HEV

Has a fuel tank that
supplies gas to the engine like a regular car

It also has a set of
batteries that run an electric motor

Both the engine and
electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time

Examples of HEV

Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius
Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry


Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
(FCEVs), also known as fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) or Zero Emission Vehicle, are electric cars that employ \’fuel cell technology to generate the electricity
required to run the vehicle. In this type of vehicle, the chemical energy of
the fuel is converted directly into electric power.

Architecture and Main Components


Components of FCEV

Electric motor

Fuel-cell stack

Hydrogen storage tank

Battery with converter and

Working Principles of FCEV

The working principle of a
\’fuel cell\’ electric car is different from that of a \’plug-in\’ electric
car. These electric cars are because the FCEV generates the electricity
required to run this vehicle on the vehicle itself.

Examples of FCEV

Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Tucson
FCEV, Riversimple Rasa, Honda Clarity Fuel Cell, Hyundai Nexo.

What are the inner parts of an

EVs have 90% fewer moving parts
than an ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) car. Here\’s a breakdown of the features
that keep an EV moving:

Electric Engine/Motor –
Provides power to rotate the wheels. It can be DC/AC type. However, AC motors
are more common.

Inverter –
Converts the electric current in the form of Direct Current (DC) into
Alternating Current (AC)

Drivetrain –
EVs have a single-speed transmission that sends power from the motor to the

Batteries –
Store the electricity required to run an EV. The higher the kW of the
storm, the higher the range.

Charging –
Plug into an outlet or EV charging point to charge your battery.


EV batteries
capacity and kWh explained.

Kilowatts (kW) is a power unit (how much energy a device needs to work). A kilowatt-hour(kWh) is a unit of
energy (it shows how much energy has been used); e.g., a 100-watt
lightbulb uses 0.1 kilowatts each hour. An average home
consumes 3,100 kWh of fuel a year. An electric car consumes an average
of 2,000 kWh of energy a year.

Electric car charging

How to charge an EV?

You can charge an electric
vehicle either by plugging it into a socket or plugging it into a charging
unit. There are plenty of charging stations around the UK to stay fully
charged while out and about. There are three types of chargers:

Three-pin plug –
a standard three-pin plug that you can connect to any 13-amp socket.

Socketed –
a charge point where you can connect either a Type 1 or Type 2 cable.

Tethered –
a charge point with a cable attached with either a Type 1 or Type 2

How long does it take to charge
an electric car?

There are also three EV charging

Slow –
typically rated up to 3kW. Often used to charge overnight or at the workplace.
Charging time: 8-10 hours.

Fast –
typically rated at either 7Kw or 22kW. Tend to be installed in car parks,
supermarkets, leisure centers, and houses with off-street parking. Charging
time: 3-4 hours.

Rapid –
typically rated from 43 kW. Only compatible with EVs that have the rapid charging
capability. Charging time: 30-60 minutes.







Kenneth Barnett – The Hybrid Car:
A look at the future of car





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